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Frequently Asked Questions
Here at EIP Autism, we have received many quiries regarding autism in general as well as our services. These are the answers to the most commonly asked questions.



Autism

Q: What is autism? 
Autism is neurobiological developmental disorder caused by a dysfunction in the central nervous system, which leads to disordered development. Also, known as 'classical autism' or autistic disorder, this disorder severely affects the course of development in a child. The onset of symptoms occurs within the first three years of life and is present in three major areas, namely, impairment in communication and play, impairment in social interaction, and the presence of repetitive and restricted patterns of behavior. 

Update: 'Autism Spectrum Disorder is a single disorder described in the recently released fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The diagnostic category no longer includes separate diagnoses for Asperger’s Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. The DSM-5 also includes a related, but distinct, diagnostic category of Social Communication Disorder.' (source: Association for Science in Autism Treatment - asatonline.org)

Q: What are the symptoms of autism?
Children with autism exhibit three major symptoms: 

· Qualitative Impairments in Communication 
Impairments in communication include both verbal and nonverbal deficits. Children with autism presents poorly developed language, and often stereotyped language, in which they are unusually repetitive (i.e., repeating phrases or words heard from advertisements or TV program over and over), or have absence of speech. Other unique features are echolalia (rote repetition of what has been heard, or parroting), pronoun reversal (confusion in referring self in second or third person), verbal preservation (repeating certain phrases over and over, or dwelling on a single topic), and abnormalities of prosody (rate, rhythm, inflection, or volume of speech). 

In some cases, children with autism initially developed some language but showed a loss in language or regression, usually during the second year. On the other hand, some has significant delay in all aspects of language and communication.
· Qualitative Impairments in Social Interaction 
Children with autism are described as "aloof", "unresponsive", and "in their own world". They have significant deficits in relating to others and often, do not use gestures, such as pointing and shaking or nodding their heads, fail to respond to their name, avoid eye contact, and have difficulty interpreting what others are thinking or feeling. 

Parents have reported that they have first notice the symptoms since infancy, as they find their child have poor eye contact, lack interest in being held, or stiffens when held. As they grow older, these children may express their social impairment by ignoring people or interacting only to have their needs met. And older or higher functioning children may desire social relationships but is insensitive to others' reactions, and has difficulty picking up social cues.
· Restricted Repetitive and Stereotyped Patterns of Behavior, Interest and Activities
Many children with autism engage in repetitive movements such as rocking, spinning, flapping their hands, or in self-abusive behavior such as head-banging and biting. They also very narrow interests, for instance, lining up cars, building towers, and sorting out CDs in colors. In terms of activities, they have a tendency to be preoccupied with parts of objects such as the wheels of a car, or shiny objects. 

Q: Is autism inherited? 
A few medical conditions has been found to occasionally give rise to autism, These include genetic disorders such as tuberous sclerosis, fragile X Syndrome, and phenylketonuria. However, there is still no single case of identifiable medical disorder found to explain autism. Recent studies have also shown that autism may run in families. About 3% of siblings of a child with autism also develop autism (Piven and Folstein, 1994). This is greater than the risk for the general population, and researchers are looking for clues about which genes contribute to this increased susceptibility. 

In short, there are studies that show strong relations between autism and the role of genetics. But, efforts are still in the process to determine the gene responsible for autism. 
 
Q: Can autism be cured? 
There are no medications to 'cure' autism and research is still on-going particularly in psychotropic (mood-altering) medications that may treat the symptoms. On the other hand, various research-based interventions have shown promise in improving some symptoms of autism in some children.

Q: What kind of therapy is available to treat autism? 
Several studies have shown that treatment approach using the methods in Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) can result in dramatic improvements for children with autism. ABA employs methods based on the principles of learning theory, to increase or build socially useful skills and reduce problematic or dysfunctional behaviors. 

In ABA, its treatment focuses on teaching small, measurable units of behavior systematically. Each step is taught in an one-on-one teaching situation with presentation of prompts or cues. Teaching trials are repeated many times, until the child performs a response readily without any prompts. All responses are recorded and evaluated according to the specific definitions and objectives set. 

Along with ABA, other approaches (which still needs more research) to enhance and maximize skill development in children with autism apart from the common Speech & Language therapy and Occupational therapy include the Denver Model, Social Communication, Emotional Regulation and Transactional Support or SCERTS, Relationship Development Intervention or RDI, Music therapy, DIR Floor Time, just to name a few.

Q: Is there any medication/vitamins/diets to cure autism? 
Various medical interventions, such as psychoactive drugs, hormone therapies, anti-yeast therapies and immunologic therapies, have been suggested in the treatment of autism. However, the usage of these therapies is controversial and requires intensive research and conclusive evidence before it is to be given to individuals with autism. The use of psychotropic medication such as risperidon, have shown to reduce problem behaviour and may improve problem behaviour but not wihout side effects. Update: 'Combining rispiridone with parent training on behavioral interventions appears to improve outcomes (Aman et al., 2009).'(source: asatonline.org)

Vitamin therapies have also been proposed in the treatment of autism. Again, this therapy is not recommended as studies showed that its efficacy have mixed results. Although short-term side effects are reported to be mild, its side effects in the long time are not known. 

The use of special diets that eliminates milk-products, gluten properties, or other specific foods from diets has been strongly advocated by some parties, with promising results. Diet therapies, however, are not generally accepted as the standard forms of treatment for autism, and is still considered experimental by many experts. Studies have not shown definite evidence and advantages to special elimination diets for children with autism, but limitations have been recorded, in which it may cause some children to get inadequate nutrition, besides being very costly.

Apart from the above, there have been no evidence for efficacy in treatments such as the anti-fungal & anti-yeast medication, Chelation Therapy, Craniosacral Therapy, Herbs and Homeopathic Treatments, Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy, Iridology, Neurofeedback Therapy, Magnets or Secretin.

Q: What are the causes of autism? 
The cause of autism is still unknown. However, it is known that there is a genetic component that puts some children susceptible to autism. Studies have been conducted and some found that people with autism have abnormal levels of serotonin or other neurotransmitters in the brain, while other studies found irregularities in several regions of the brain. While these findings are intriguing, further study needs to be carried out as they are still in the preliminary stages. 

Q: What are the procedures in assessing a child suspected of having autism? 
To arrive with a formal diagnosis of autism, assessment involves experienced professionals gathering information about the particular child's behavior from parents and from direct observation of the child. An autistic assessment as well as a comprehensive assessment will be carried out, where the child is assessed in the following areas of development: 
· Cognition
· Communication

· Social interactions and relationships
· Adaptive behaviours
· Motor skills
· Behaviour and responses to environment
· Relationship between family and child 

Typical autism assessment instruments are, Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Checklist for Autism In Toddlers (CHAT), and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). 
A comprehensive health evaluation is also recommended to obtain a general health status of the child, as well as identifying other medical conditions that are sometimes confused with autism, in a child who does not have autism. |back to questions|

Q: What is Pervasive Developmental Delay (PDD)? 
The term pervasive developmental delay is used to describe a group of childhood disorders with similar behavioral features. The disorders that make up this group of disorders are:
· Autistic Disorder
· Asperger's Disorder
· Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
· Rett's Disorder
· PDD-not otherwise specified 

Q: How early can autism be diagnosed? 
As more studies are done on the area of autism, there is an increasing ability to recognize this disorder at an early age. In many cases, a young child, even as young as under the age of three, can be identified and recognized by his/her difficulty in orienting to social stimuli, lack of social gaze, deficits in attention and motor imitation, and presentation of underdeveloped language abilities. 
However, it is difficult to make a definite diagnosis at an early age with reliability, or ascertain whether the diagnosis will be accurate and predictive in a later diagnosis. Thorough and multiple observations are required, sometimes over an extended period of time, to confirm the diagnosis of autism.

Q: Who can make the diagnosis? 
Most of the time, symptoms of children with autism are fairly apparent and noticeable by many others, it is important that qualified professionals are consulted to obtain a formal diagnosis. 
Professionals qualified to provide a formal diagnosis are: 
· Psychiatrist
· Clinical Psychologist
· Pediatrician (will require to send child for referral to the above professionals)
· Doctors (will require to send child for referral to the above professionals) 

Q: What is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)? 
Each case of autism can be placed along a continuum ranging from milder to more severe based on the level of functional skills in area such as communication, cognitive abilities, social interactions, etc. Most specialists believe that the boundaries along the continuum are overlapping and indistinct. The term autism spectrum disorder is, therefore, used to describe a group of childhood developmental disorder that has similar behavioral features. It is also sometimes used interchangeably with pervasive developmental disorder

Q: Is there a link between MMR and autism? 
Recent studies on the prevalence of autism have shown an increased in children afflicted with autistic disorder. And some studies have noted the increase correlates with the introduction of MMR vaccine given to children at about the age of 13 months to 18 months, which also coincides with some cases where some children later diagnosed to be autistic, appeared to have autistic-like symptoms and lose their language ability. 
However, this issue is still in hot debate and controversial. Many specialists question the evidence and further studies are being done rigorously. 

Q: What is Asperger Syndrome? 
Asperger Syndrome is a developmental disorder on the autistic spectrum. Children with asperger syndrome, show impairments in social interaction and restricted patterns of behavior, as seen in autistic children however, they often shown normal language and intellectual functioning. Many specialists believe that asperger syndrome may be a mild form or a higher functioning autistic disorder. While some other specialists believe that asperger syndrome may be a distinct disorder from autism. Nevertheless, research has yet to demonstrate that asperger syndrome is a different disorder as compared to autistic disorder. 

Q: Is there a prenatal test for autism? 
Currently, there is no genetic test for autism. However, prenatal biological test that investigates other medical conditions associated with autism, such as fragile X Syndrome and phenylketonuria, can be carried out. 

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Behaviour

Q: What is Behaviour Modification? 
Behaviour modification is simply translated to "changing one's behaviour". It is the application of behaviour principles to improve specific behaviours. However, this term has been used interchangeably with Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA) and Behavioural Therapy. In ABA, it is 'environmenta'l modification in which we analyze and control the variables affecting the behaviour of concern. Update: 'The name "applied behavior analysis" has replaced behavior modification because the latter approach suggested attempting to change behavior without clarifying the relevant behavior-environment interactions'(source: Wikipedia - Applied Behaviour Analysis)

Q: What is Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA)?
Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA) also called, behavioural modification, behavioural intervention or behavioural treatment, is the application of specific methods based on scientific principles of behaviour in therapeutic settings, to build socially appropriate behaviours and reduce problematic ones especially in individuals with autism. With careful examination and continuous assessment of behaviours, information obtained from the analysis of behaviours, provides understanding what triggers (antecedents) and maintains (consequences) an individual's behaviours. Strategies can, then, be implemented to change or modify the antecedents and consequences, thus, resulting in a change of behaviour in the individual. 

Q: What is the Lovaas Approach?
The Lovaas Approach is just another term for the employment of techniques of Applied Behavioural Analysis and Discrete Trial Training. It is named after O. Ivar Lovaas who first demonstrated the efficacy of this approach. Using behaviour change techniques, Lovaas focused on strategies to teach social behaviours, eliminate self-stimulatory behaviours, and develop language skills in children with autism. 

Q: What is Discrete Trial Training (DTT)?
Discrete Trial Training (DTT) is one of the methods or techniques used in behaviour modification or applied behavioural analysis. It is effectively used, especially in building language and skills such as mathematics and social skills, in autistic individuals. It is a very structured method, and involves teaching the individual on a one-on-one basis. The individual learns through presentation of tasks in a series of separate (discrete), brief sessions (trials), and is expected to focus only on the task. Only successful attempts are rewarded, whereas unsuccessful attempts are corrected through prompting.

Q: Does ABA/DTT therapy cure autism?
It is best to term 'recovery' in whether ABA/DTT therapy is beneficial in the management of autism. Some studies have shown that some children (about 40% to 50%) can achieve 'symptom free' status, while other children have show or make partial recovery. 

Q: Does ABA/DTT therapy work with other disabilities?
ABA/DTT can work with other disabilities but often the results are not as remarkable. 

Q: How much therapy does a child with autism need?
Support recommendation about 35-40 hours per week is suggested based on Lovaas (1987). However, it is generally accepted that a minimum of 20 hours a week over a two-year period is necessary. Note that therapeutic activities need not be confined to tabletop activities or indoor activities especially when the child progresses, so that generalization and maintaining of training in different environments can be introduced and learned. 

Q:Who are the professionals qualified in behavior analysis or ABA?
Professionals/paraprofessionals/educators who are qualified to provide behavior analysis training or ABA should have either a master's or doctorate degree and are certified by the Behaviour Analyst Certification Board (BACB). They would be the Board Certified Behaviour Analysts (BCBA-D or BCBA). There are also Board Certified Assistant Behaviour Analysts (BCaBA) who work under the supervision of a BCBA or BCBA-D. Registered Behaviour Technicians are also board certified and need to be supervised by a BCBA or BCBA-D. Finally, we have the behaviour technicians that need to be under a BCBA or BCBA-D supervision only until 31st December 2018. Effective 1st of January 2019, all behaviour technicians must register with the BACB.


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Speech Therapy



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Occupational Therapy

Q: What is Occupational Therapy? 
Occupational Therapy is therapy concerned with promoting health and the well being through occupation. Occupation is activities that people do during the course of everyday life, which gives meaning and purpose to their lives (who you are and how you feel about your self). 

Q: What is the aim of Occupational Therapy?
The principal aim of occupational therapy is to help enhance a person's ability to participate in everyday activities. It focuses on working with people on every aspect of their daily lives that are essential for independent functioning, health and well being to reduce avoidable dependency. 

Q: Who needs Occupational Therapy
People who are disadvantaged by physical, mental illness (psychiatric) and/or social problems either since birth or as a result of accident, illness or ageing. It could be anyone who for whatever reason cannot do the things in life they want or need to do including those with: 

· Work related injuries including lower back problems or repetitive stress injuries
· Limitations following a stroke or heart attack
· Arthritis, multiple sclerosis or other serious chronic conditions
· Birth injuries, learning problems or developmental disabilities like autism attention deficit disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, cerebral palsy
· Mental health or behavioural problems including Alzheimer's, schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress
· Burns, spinal cord injuries or amputations
· Broken bones or other injuries from falls, sport injuries or accidents
· Vision or cognitive problems that threaten the ability to drive 

Q: How can Occupational Therapy help?
Occupational Therapy uses a systematic approach to help a person develop means and opportunities to identify, engage in and improve their function in the occupations of life. Many can achieve or regain a higher level of independence. When skill and strength cannot be developed or improved, occupational therapy offers creative solutions and alternatives for carrying out daily activities. It can prevent the worsening of existing conditions or disabilities which may otherwise require institutionalization or other long term care.

Children
Within the school system occupational therapist helps children facing physical, cognitive or mental health challenges that affect their school performances, socialization and health focusing on certain areas:- 
· Activities of daily living (self-needs like eating, dressing and toilet habits)
· Education (achieving in the learning environment)
· Play (interacting with age appropriate toys, games, equipment and activities)
· Socialization (developing appropriate relationships and engaging in behaviour that does not interfere with learning r social relationships)
· Work (developing interests and skills necessary for transition to community life after school)
Adults
Occupational therapists performs services for adults in rehabilitation therapy after a work injury or accident. They also work in consultation with employers on programme and facility design to day-to-day operations and serves as advisors to manufacturing and service companies in areas of wellness, ergonomics and rehabilitation. 
Elderly people 
As we get older we get less able. Illness and disabilities can make daily tasks like shopping, cooking, washing and getting around the house harder to manage. Occupational Therapy helps them to regain or maintain a level of independence for as long as possible. 


Q:Where do Occupational Therapist practice?
· In community agencies
· Health care organizations - hospitals, chronic care facilities, rehabilitation centres, clinics, hospices, nursing facilities, psychiatric facilities
· Education settings - preschools, schools, colleges, universities
· Social services and social work agencies
· Vocational rehabilitation
· Geriatric care services
· Terminal and palliative care services

Occupational therapists works as part of a multidisciplinary team collaborating with parents/caregivers and other team members, including physicians, nurses, speech-language pathologists, psychologists and teachers to target desired outcomes and determine the services, supports and modifications and accommodations needed to achieve those outcomes. 

Q:What qualifications/training does an Occupational Therapist have?
In Canada an Occupational Therapist have:
· A degree from an accredited university program with a 4 year baccalaureate degree or a master's degree in occupational therapy.
· Successfully completed a minimum of 1000 hours of fieldwork education.
· Successfully passed the certification examination administered by the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapist or met provincial registration qualifications.

In USA an Occupational Therapist:
· Can be credentialed at either the professional (occupational therapy) or technical (occupational therapy assistant) level.
· Completes a baccalaureate, entry-level master's pr entry-level doctoral degree for occupational therapy.
· A 2 year associate degree (occupational therapist assistant) programme at one of the 300 accredited programme at collages and universities in the US.
· Occupational therapist and occupational therapist assistant must complete a supervised fieldwork programme and pass a national certification examination.
· Mandated periodic continuing education requirements.
· In January 1st, 2007 occupational therapy was credentialed at post baccalaureate degree level.

In United Kingdom an Occupational Therapist have:
· Completes a accreditation programme with College of Occupational Therapists at diploma or degree (3 years) or masters (2 years) level in occupational therapy.
· Completes supervised clinical internship.
· Registered with Health Professions Council to practice.
· Mandated periodic continuing education.

In Malaysia an Occupational Therapist have:
· University graduate from the Ministry of Health College or
· Completed a 3 year diploma course from University Technology of Mara and/or a further 2 year degree course, or a 4 year degree from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
· Completed supervised clinical fieldwork

Q:What is a typical first Occupational Therapy session?
First the occupational therapist will check a client's physical ability to carry out everyday tasks (strength, co-ordination and balance) and mental abilities such as memory. It involves the assessment, intervention and evaluation of the client in relation to occupational performance in self-care, work, study and leisure. 

Next the occupational therapist will review which activities a client would like to perform more easily. Then the occupational therapist will look what support is available (things a client needs) to carry out the desired activity (furniture, equipment, clothes) and the surrounding environment (the layout of your home, classroom or your work place). 

A treatment plan is then drawn up setting out the targeted goals/outcomes with a specific time frame. The plan will be periodically reviewed and adjusted according progress made. A reevaluation of goals and approaches may also be necessary.

Q:What Does It Take To Be An Occupational Therapist? 
It takes a person with these SPECIAL QUALITIES: 
Creativity - In planning activities and designing tools and equipment that will meet people's needs and interests. 
Warmth - Toward people of all ages and backgrounds. 
Flexibility - In revising programs to meet ever-changing needs to keep up with new techniques. 
Responsibility - For selecting and supervising programme activities to meet specific goals. 
Determination & Patience - Even when progress is very slow and difficult, the therapist must boost self-confidence and the will to succeed, as well as build strength and skills.


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Music Therapy

Q: Who is qualified to practice music therapy? 
A music therapist is an accomplished musician, able to play several instruments (usually including piano and guitar), to sing and to improvise in a variety of styles. Music therapists have a degree in music therapy from university programs approved by the relevant Music Association [like the American Music Therapy Association, British Music Association, Canadian Association for Music Therapy,]. Grounding in the theory, research and practice of music therapy and psychology is necessary to provide individuals and groups with effective therapeutic services. They also complete at least six months of full-time supervised clinical training [internship] and must also be board certified by [they become “MT-BC”] taking a national examination.

Q: What is music therapy?
Music therapists work in a variety of settings, including educational, medical, psychiatric, day care treatment centers, rehabilitative facilities, correctional facilities, halfway houses and gerontology facilities. In all work settings, music therapists function as part of the multi-disciplinary team, their observations adding greatly to the understanding of each client’s needs, abilities or problems. 

Q: Where do music therapist work?
Music therapists work in a variety of settings, including educational, medical, psychiatric, day care treatment centers, rehabilitative facilities, correctional facilities, halfway houses and gerontology facilities. In all work settings, music therapists function as part of the multi-disciplinary team, their observations adding greatly to the understanding of each client’s needs, abilities or problems. 

Q: How is music used therapeutically?
Music is the primary therapeutic tool. Using music to establish a trusting relationship, the music therapist then works to facilitate contact, interaction, self-awareness, learning, self-expression, communication and personal development through carefully structured activities. Examples can include: 
Singing - Used to help people with speech impairments improve their articulation, rhythm and breath control. In a group setting individuals develop a greater awareness of theirs by singing together. Lyrics are used to help people with mental disabilities sequence a task. 
Listening - It helps develop cognitive skills such as attention and memory. It facilitates the process of coming to terms with difficult issues by providing a creative environment for self-expression. Actively listening to music in a relaxed and receptive state stimulates thoughts, images and provides a way to explore and understand our own and other cultures. 
Instruments - Can improve gross and fine motor coordination n individuals with motor impairments. Playing in instrumental ensembles helps a person with behavioural problems to learn how to control disruptive impulses by working within a group structure. Learning a piece of music and performing it develops musical skills and helps a person builds self-reliance, self-esteem and self-discipline. 
Composing - Is used to develop cooperative learning and to facilitate the sharing of feelings, ideas and experiences. For hospitalized children, writing a song is a means of expressing and understanding fears. 
Rhythmic movement - To facilitate and improve an individual’s range of motion, joint mobility/agility/strength, balance, co-ordination, gait consistency, respiration patterns and muscular relaxation. The rhythmic component of music helps to increase motivation, interest and enjoyment and acts as a nonverbal persuasion to involve individuals socially. 

Through whatever form the therapy takes, the therapist aims to facilitate positive changes in the behavioural, physical, cognitive or social functioning and emotional well-being of individuals with health or educational problems. 

Q: How can music therapy help?
Music is essentially a social activity involving communication, listening and sharing. These skills may be developed within the musical relationship with the therapist and, in group therapy , with other members. Children, adolescents, adults and the elderly with mental health needs, developmental and learning disabilities, physical disabilities, brain injuries and sensory impairments can greatly benefit from music therapy. 

Q: What are the misconceptions about music therapy?
That the client has to have some particular music ability to benefit from music therapy - they do not. That there is one particular style of music that is more therapeutic than all the rest - this is not the case. All styles of music can be useful in effecting change in a client’s life. The individual preferences, circumstances and need for treatment and the client’s goals help to determine the types of music a music therapist may use.


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P-Scales Programme

Q: What is P Scales?          
P Scales are a set of descriptors for recording the achievement of children with learning difficulties who are working towards the first stage of the National Curriculum. The P Scales are split into 8 different levels. Level P1 being the lowest while level P8 the highest. Level P8 leads on to National Curriculum Level 1. Levels P1 - P3 describe early learning and the development of understanding and are not specifically related to any National Curriculum subject.

The P scales have now been made part of the National Curriculum (UK) since 2008.  They are intended for children with all kinds of special needs who are still working towards the National Curriculum across theage range of 5 to 16.

Q: How does P Scales work?
The P-scale in itself is a way of tracking children progress.  Children will work according to their ability level, some will start at a higher level (e.g. P4) and others at a lower level. Teachers who know a child,  make observations and assessments based on their knowledge of the child to measure linear and lateral progress over a period of time and to compare progress within P Scales across subjects. Children are assessed based on a best fit model.

Q: When is P Scales used?
P Scales has been developed and used when a child has been found to have learning difficulties, where they generally make slower than normal progress and whose progress would otherwise not be captured. It is encouraged that children who have found to have such difficulties to start on the P Scales programme as soon as possible thus allowing the child to catch up to the necessary level as soon as possible.

Q: How widely is P Levels used?
It has been known to be implemented within countries such as Denmark, Ireland, France, Australia, Hong Kong and New Zealand.

Given the cross border use of P Scales does lend support/credibility that the P Scales are suitable for children seeking to gain admission into International schools.

Q: What is taught in P Levels?
Subjects covered within the P Scales will include Mathematics, English (Speaking, Listening, Reading and Writing), Science, Geography, History, Art and Design, Physical Education and ICT.

Q: Who forms the teaching staff?
Our Multidisciplinary Team consist of a Consultant Educational Consultant, Academic teachers, Speech Therapist, Occupational Therapist and Music Therapist. Each one of them would work together in identifying a child’s learning objectives, from areas of the curriculum and together work on a specific Individualised Educational Programme (IEP) for the child. Our Educational Psychologist who has been in UK for the past 10 years has considerable experience using the P Scales with children with special needs.

Q: How often is this program?
P Scales program in our centre will be held 4 days a week for 4 hours each in a group setting with a maximum of 5 students to 2 teachers.

Q: Additional Support
Children who require additional support will attend a 1:1 session with the Speech & Language Pathologist or the Occupational Therapist. Children who enjoy music can also opt to do Music Therapy to improve their attending skills.

Q: Is there a guarantee of admission to school?
It is important to note that, although a child will gain the necessary skills and knowledge needed to access an International curriculum, there is no guarantee of admission as every school has their own admission criteria and preference.

Q: What happens if a child is unable to complete Level 8 by school going age?
P Scales main aim is to describe the progress towards Level 1 of the National Curriculum of children with learning difficulties and disabilities of National Curriculum age, (5 years or Year 1). 
Those who are beyond the school going age and yet is unable to complete up to Level 8, more focus will be given towards the child key functional development that are related to the child’s social and daily living skills.


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